Diminishing fishery harvests, wild fish food-safety issues, environmental concerns , increased fish consumption and the increasing market share of organic food have combined to focus attention on “ organic aquaculture”. Consumer demand may well drive the organic production of finfish, shellfish and other aquatic species into the mainstream during the next decade.
Problems of aquaculture today
1.The use of wild fish for farmed fish feed is a waste of protein resources because it takes about 3 ton of wild caught fish and other marine life to produce 1 ton of carnivorous fish such as Salmon. This practice depletes fishers of small wild oceanic fish.
2.Chemical and antibiotic usage, which is inherent to industrial aquaculture production and waste dispersal, pollute the surrounding marine environment.
Aquaculture in the country has faces setbacks in the last few years and organic aquaculture would be the right course for the industry at present . It is an attempt to mitigate the aforementioned problems with industrial aquaculture. This practice would entail raising aquatic food in a humane manner that is sustainable and dosen’t pollute the environment . The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working on drafting organic aquaculture standards. The Specific standards The USDA choosed will determine wheather or not organic aquaculture will become a viable alternative to environmentally degrading practices of industrial aquaculture . The Code of conduct for responsible Fisherie(CCRF), unanimously adopted in 1995, has been a key reference point for FAO members and beyond.
Principle of Organic Aquaculture
Absence of GMOs (genetically modified organisms) in stocks and feed prime material.
Limitation of stocking density
Origin of vegetal feed and fertilizer from certified organic agriculture, no artificial feed ingredients
No use of inorganic fertilizers
No use of synthetic pesticided and herbicided
Restriction on energy consumption (e.g . Regarding aeration )
Preference for natural medicines
Intensive monitoring of environmental impact, protection of surrounding ecosystem and integration of natural plant communities in farm management
Processing according to organic principles
Black tiger shrimp : India, Vietnam , Bangladesh
Vennami Shrimp : Ecuador, peru
Freshwater Shrmp : USA, Bangladesh
Tilapia : China , Israel , Brazil,Honduras
Pangasius catfish : Vietnam
Carps : East and Southern Europe
Trout and sea bream : Eastern, Western and Southern Europe: Europe
Cod : East and southern Europe
Atlantic Salmon : U.K., Ireland, Chile
Mussels : New Zealand
Organic Aquaculture in India
India’s Farmers are still practicing organic methods, passed down for millennia. Organic fertilizer and natural pest control are the only tools available to most of these farmers, who have always lacked the financial resources to explore chemical solutions. But these farmers, whose produce is as organic as they come, cannot afford to pay the fees required to gain official certification. The Indian Central Government set up National Institute of Organic Farming in October 2003 in Madhya Pradesh. The purpose of this institute is to formulate rules , regulations and certification of organic farm products in conformity with international standards. As the international community adopts standard for organic agriculture , the challenges faced by farmers in the USA versus farmers in India in order to adapt are very different indeed . The danger is that the well- intentioned global move towards organic standards will make small organic farmers in countries like India, who have been never done anything but organic farming , no longer able to sell their crops.
The world’s first organic aquaculture harvest of the large fresh water prawn , scampi was made the backwaters of kerala on November 1, 2007. This Unique project is being implemented with the assistance of the Marine products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) in collaboration with the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), Switzerland, Extensive use of chemicals and pesticides in conventional food production technology has been compelling health conscious people of developed countries to explore and support organic farming methods in agriculture and aquaculture. The Indian project for organic black tiger and scampi was initiated to pursue the huge market potential of selling aquaculture product in the European markets. The Indian Organic Aquaculture Project was first initiated in January 2007 in the maritime States of Andra Pradesh and Kerala with technical consultancy from M/s Blue you. Certification is mandatory for selling organic products across the world and Naturland of Germany has been chosen as the certifying agency and Indocert in Kerala is the inspection body for the project.
India is one of the richest in terms of shrimp and fish resources in the world and there is a huge demand for organic aqua products is European and America countries. All the big super markets, coop (Switzerland) Aimare (Austria), and Bristall Bay (USA) are searching for organic product supplier throughout the world.
Research and Development:
Aquatic species, both animal and plant; ecological situation and locations; and various production systems, both marine and freshwater ; are now under scrutiny in order to determine adaptability to organic production systems. Concern about the production and handling requirements that organic standards would impose and the overarching environmental impacts that organic systems attempt to address has pointed research and development efforts in some new directions. Current research activities with important implications for the organic aquaculture industry include: alternative feeds, especially protein source from grain and oilseed plants; culture of low –trophic aquatic species; disease management and use of natural and alternative medicines; polyculture and multi-species systems; self-filtering system ; techniques for expanded recovery of fishery by –catch and waste for use in organic systems; implications of using closed containment systems; environmentally sound effluent management systems; and consumer studies related to food (preferences and purchasing habits.